Tocumwal is a town in the southern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia in the Berrigan Shire Local Government Area, near the Victorian border.
The town is situated on the banks of the Murray River, 270 kilometres (170 mls) north of the city of Melbourne. In 2009 the population of Tocumwal was 2,057.
The Newell Highway (39), part of the main road route between Brisbane and Melbourne commences at Tocumwal.
The town is said to be named for the local Aboriginal word for "deep hole in the river".
Prior to European settlement, the Tocumwal area was inhabited by the Ulupna and Bangarang Aborigines. The first pastoral runs were established in the 1840s. The town was established in the early 1860s and recognised as a village in 1872. Tocumwal Post Office opened on 1 August 1868.
Prior to Federation, Tocumwal was an important customs point for goods crossing between the then colonies of Victoria and New South Wales.
A standard gauge branch line from the New South Wales Government Railways Main Southern railway line at Junee reached Narrandera in 1881 and a branch from Narrandera was completed to Tocumwal in 1898.
The broad gauge Victorian Railways Melbourne-Shepparton railway line was extended to Tocumwal in 1908, creating a break-of-gauge at Tocumwal until the New South Wales Government Railways line was closed south of Narrandera (about 1980).
During the Second World War the town was the site of Royal Australian Air Force Station Tocumwal, which was a major Royal Australian Air Force training airfield and aircraft depot.
Today, the airfield is a renowned gliding site.
Because of the break-of-gauge between the railways north and south of Tocumwal, this station was a natural choice for military oriented storage facilities and munitions dumps.
Tocumwal was also where the largest Murray cod in the world was caught.